What are Client Hints?
User-Agent Client Hints (UA-CH) is a Google proposal that changes how certain browsers identify themselves to web servers. In summary, the proposal removes granular information such as device model, operating system version and granular browser version details from the traditional User-Agent header by replacing these tokens in the User-Agent header with unchanging placeholders.
The following example shows the change to a typical Android phone (Huawei P30 Pro) User-Agent header, before and after the UA-CH change:
Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 11; VOG-L09) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/110.0.4472.120 Mobile Safari/537.36 Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 10; K) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/18.104.22.168 Mobile Safari/537.36
In browsers supporting UA-CH the granular information thus removed can obtained in two ways:
- By requesting additional UA-CH headers to be sent by the browser with each subsequent request
Since around May 2023 User-Agent Client Hints are now fully rolled out in current versions of Chrome and Edge. Web servers can thus expect a large proportion of traffic to present using these headers and a reduced User-Agent string. For Android devices in particular about 2/3 of web traffic for most websites is now sending reduced User-Agent headers and corresponding UA-CH headers.
The remainder of this page is divided into the following sections:
- What are Client Hints?
- DeviceAtlas support for User-Agent Client Hints
- Developer considerations
- Capturing and processing UA-CHs
- Testing tools
DeviceAtlas support for User-Agent Client Hints
DeviceAtlas fully supports User-Agent Client hints since version 3.0 of our SDK, available in all supported languages. The API is method-compatible with previous versions but the inherent nature of UA-CH means that developers should pass all UA-CH headers to the DeviceAtlas API in addition to the User-Agent header in order to maintain product functionality.
Version 3 of the DeviceAtlas API consumes a differently-formatted data file than previous versions of the API. Customers can set this new format to be the default from their Account / Data File Options page. Alternatively, the file format can be specified with parameters to our download link. You can build data download URLs by testing options on our JSON Data File Download page.
UA-CHs introduce many additional considerations for developers such as working around the first visit issue and delegating hints permissions for third-party origins and iframes. You can read more about these considerations in our User-Agent Client Hints Developer Considerations Guide.
There are several different scenarios where the precedence of UA-CH and the User-Agent header must be considered. Our DeviceAtlas and UA-CH header precedence page describes the logic used by DeviceAtlas in different contexts.
Capture and processing of User-Agent Client Hints
Configuring your web server to support User-Agent Client hints
Our Configuring NGINX and Apache to support User-Agent Client-Hints guide explains how to configure NGINX and Apache to request UA-CHs from visitors to your website.
OpenRTB and User-Agent Client Hints
The OpenRTB protocol has been updated to support UA-CH since version 2.6 of the specification was released in 2022. With the newest update, the OpenRTB specification now explicitly defines how to populate the ua attribute and the sua attribute in the case where a browser supports User-Agent Client Hints. You can read more about this in our blog post at the time.
Obtaining UA-CH in the first request
Google have proposed a mechanism for obtaining UA-CH in the first request from a new browser by utilising the ALPS extension to TLS. Our Obtaining high-entropy User-Agent Client Hints in the first request page discusses the details.
The DeviceAtlas Header Parser permits you to test any HTTP headers or to use and see all of the headers sent by your current browser, including User-Agent Client Hints.